Most hinged doors have the same basic framework consisting of two stiles that run vertically and two or more rails that run horizontally.
The hinges are on the hinge stile; the latch and lock are on the lock stile.
Panel doors have several panels mounted between the rails and stiles; flush doors have an insulation core or filler material between the rails and stiles and a veneer that overlays the entire assembly.
Hinged doors are attached by two or three hinges to their frames. The frame consists of jambs, a casing, stops, a sill, and a threshold. The jambs form the sides and head of the frame, and the casing is support for the jambs. The stops are wood strips against which the door fits when closed.
For information on how doorknobs and locksets work, please see How Doorknobs Work.